Cincinnati, Ohio – 2024—2023 was a landmark year for Alzheimer’s disease research, including advancements in treatment, risk factors and diagnosis of Alzheimer’s and other dementias. In this new era of Alzheimer’s treatments, here are five significant discoveries from this year:

  1. There are now three newly approved treatments for Alzheimer’s, with a fourth on the way.

In July 2023, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted traditional approval for Leqembi for treatment of mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer’s and mild Alzheimer’s dementia. This treatment, while not a cure, slows cognitive decline and can give people with early Alzheimer’s more time to maintain their independence.

The FDA granted accelerated approval to Aduhelm for the same purpose in June 2021. At the Alzheimer’s Association International Conference (AAIC) in July 2023, Eli Lilly reported positive results for a third treatment — donanemab — in that same population. The company expects FDA action by the end of 2023.

In May, the FDA approved brexpiprazole for agitation in people with Alzheimer’s disease. This is the first FDA-approved treatment for Alzheimer’s-related agitation, which is experienced by about 45% of Alzheimer’s patients. According to research published in May 2023, there are more than 140 therapies being tested that target multiple aspects of Alzheimer’s.

  1. Hearing aids could slow cognitive decline for at-risk older adults. 

In the largest clinical trial to investigate whether a hearing loss treatment intervention can reduce risk of cognitive decline, researchers found that older adults with hearing loss, who were at higher risk of cognitive decline, cut their cognitive decline in half by using hearing aids for three years.

  1. Blood tests for Alzheimer’s are coming soon, and could improve diagnosis and treatment.

Blood tests show promise for improving, and possibly even redefining, future Alzheimer’s diagnosis. Advancements reported for the first time at AAIC 2023 demonstrate the simplicity and value to doctors of blood-based biomarkers for Alzheimer’s.

Blood tests are already being implemented in Alzheimer’s drug trials for further proof of their effectiveness. And they are incorporated into proposed new diagnostic and staging criteria for the disease. Blood tests — once verified, and approved by the FDA — would offer a noninvasive and cost-effective option in identifying blood-based markers for the disease.

  1. First-ever U.S. county-level Alzheimer’s prevalence estimates. 

The first-ever county-level estimates of the prevalence of people with Alzheimer’s dementia — in all 3,142 United States counties — were reported at AAIC 2023. For counties with a population of 10,000 or more people 65 or older, researchers estimated the highest Alzheimer’s prevalence rates in Ohio.

The researchers identified certain characteristics that may explain the higher prevalence in these counties, including older average age and higher percentages of Black and Hispanic residents.

According to the Alzheimer’s Association, these stats can help public health officials determine the burden on the health care system, and better pinpoint areas of high risk and high need — for example, for culturally-sensitive health support and caregiver training services.

  1. Chronic constipation is associated with poor cognitive function. 

Approximately 16% of the world’s population struggles with constipation. That prevalence is even higher among older adults. This year, researchers reported that less frequent bowel movements were associated with significantly worse cognitive function.

Compared to those with bowel movements once daily, people with bowel movements every three days or more had worse memory and thinking equal to three additional years of cognitive aging. These results stress the importance of clinicians discussing gut health, especially constipation, with their older patients, including how to prevent constipation.

There are 220,000 Ohioans 65 and older living with Alzheimer’s disease, according to the Alzheimer’s Association 2023 Alzheimer’s Disease Facts and Figures. That number is expected to hit 250,000 by 2025. A total of 493,000 Ohio caregivers provide 736 million hours of unpaid care each year.

Those concerned about themselves or a loved one can contact the Alzheimer’s Association Greater Cincinnati Chapter at 513.721.4284 to schedule a care consultation and be connected to local resources.

To learn more about Alzheimer’s or other related dementia, or to access free tools and resources, visit or call the Alzheimer’s Association 24/7 Helpline at 800.272.3900.


Alzheimer’s Disease Facts and Figures, an annual report released by the Alzheimer’s Association, reveals the burden of Alzheimer’s and dementia on individuals, caregivers, government and the nation’s health care system.

The accompanying special report, The Patient Journey in an Era of New Treatments, examines the importance of conversations about memory at the earliest point of concern, as well as a knowledgeable, accessible care team to diagnose, monitor disease progression and treat when appropriate. This is especially true now, in an era when treatments that change the underlying biology of Alzheimer’s are available.

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